Acyl CoA - Saturated Fatty Acid

What is Acyl CoA?

Acyl-CoA is a family of coenzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, temporary compounds formed when CoA attaches to the ends of long-chain fatty acids in living cells. A saturated fatty acid is a fatty acid with a long carbon chain length and no double bonds. When saturated fatty acids are metabolized in cells, they can bind to Coenzyme A to form saturated fatty acyl Coenzyme A complexes. BOC Sciences offers a wide range of Acyl CoA products such as 24:0 Coenzyme A (ammonium salt), 22:0 Coenzyme A (ammonium salt), 18:1 (n9) Coenzyme A (ammonium salt), and others.

Acyl CoA - Saturated Fatty Acid

Advantages of Acyl CoA

Energy storage. Fatty acids can be stored in adipose tissue after the formation of saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A. Compared to sugars, fatty acids are stored in a more energy dense form and can provide longer lasting energy.

Metabolic pathways. Saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A is involved in several cellular metabolic pathways. It can be catabolized in the mitochondria via the β-oxidation pathway to produce energy for cellular use.

Cell membrane structure. By binding to saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A, cells can utilize them to synthesize and maintain cell membrane integrity and function.

Preparation of Acyl CoA

Acyl CoA - saturated fatty acid is prepared in two steps.

1. Fatty acid activation. First, the fatty acid enters the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, the fatty acid binds to Coenzyme A via fatty acyl-CoA synthetase. And then, the activated fatty acid (fatty acyl-AMP) is transferred from AMP to the thiol group of CoA to form acyl-Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA).

2. Esterification. The formed acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is further involved in intracellular metabolic pathways. Acyl-CoA can be transported to different cytoplasm or organelles, such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum, via acyl-CoA transporter proteins on the membrane. In the target cytoplasm or organelle, acyl-CoA is catalyzed by specific enzymes to participate in specific reactions, such as β-oxidation in mitochondria or lipid synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Function of Acyl CoA

Acyl CoA is an important intermediate in intracellular fatty acid metabolism. It is involved in several metabolic pathways in the cytoplasm, such as lipid synthesis and fatty acid β-oxidation.

Lipid synthesis. As a fatty acyl donor, Acyl CoA can react with glycerol and other fatty acid residues to catalyze the synthesis of lipids such as triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and phospholipids.

Fatty acid β-oxidation. Acyl CoA is translocated into the mitochondria, where it gradually breaks down saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A into acetyl coenzyme A through a series of catalytic enzymes, generating energy for cellular use.

Lipid regulation. When the intracellular concentration of saturated fatty acids is high, the production of saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A increases, promoting lipid synthesis and fatty acid storage. Conversely, when energy demand increases or lipid supply is insufficient, saturated fatty acyl coenzyme A activity decreases, promoting fatty acid β-oxidation to release energy.

Signaling and metabolic regulation. Acyl CoA and its metabolites can act as cellular signaling molecules involved in the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. For example, metabolites of saturated fatty coenzyme A can affect intracellular enzyme activity, gene expression and cell signaling pathways, thereby regulating biological processes such as lipid metabolism, insulin signaling and inflammatory responses.

As a trusted supplier of lipids, BOC Sciences is committed to providing high-quality products that meet the ever-changing needs of researchers and industry professionals. If you have a need for our products, please feel free to contact us.

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